The Hyrcanian Forests stretches 850 km along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea in Iran. with a long history this ancient forest dates back to 25-50 million years ago; this why we mentioned it as a reminder of dinosaur’s era. This area is very important for the natural researchers from around the world because of its plant coverage, 80 species of birds, and 58 mammal species that have been recorded in Hyrcanian forests. This is also the home of iconic Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana). Hyrcania refers to the ancient Persian word Varkana, an administrative state, including the modern provinces of Mazandaran, Guilan and Golestan.
Hyrcanian forests, living fossils
Hyrcanian forests in the northern part of Iran are quite spectacular in the world. Hyrcanian forests are known throughout the world as the Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests. There is also a different view of these forests in East Azerbaijan and in the Arasbaran area, which some experts have independently called the Arasbaran forests in the classification of Iranian forests. The northern part of Iran is actually a semi-Mediterranean climate with temperate and humid climates.
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UNESCO inscription of Hyrcanian Forests
The Hyrcanian forests, as unique forested massif inscribed in UNESCO natural heritage in 2019.
The property of the forests divided into fifteen component parts. Most of these parts has its unique landscape and host many regionally and locally endemic species of flora, showing its high ecological value to attracts tourism and become a potential area for nature lovers.
Importance of Hyrcanian forests
In addition to its age, these forests have an important role to clean the weather and provide the oxygen and also storing water, protect the area against water erosion and flooding. All of these matters and its tourism importance made the area one of the most popular destinations in northern Iran, but the deforestation and human destructive activities always threaten the area.